In a significant ruling,1 the English High Court has perceived interestingly that there is a questionable case that non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are to be treated as property under English regulation. This implies that the strong exclusive cures accessible to survivors of cryptographic money extortion are likewise accessible to NFT misrepresentation victims.

The Facts

In September 2021, the organizer behind Women in Blockchain Talks (the petitioner) was gifted NFTs addressing computerized show-stoppers from Boss Beauties, a ladies drove NFT symbol assortment which supports drives to set out mentorship and grant open doors for young ladies and ladies. By January 2022, the NFTs had been taken out from her wallet by fraudsters without her assent. The NFTs were then followed to two records constrained by people obscure (the main respondent) on a U.S.- based shared NFT commercial center named Ozone Networks Incorporated t/an Opensea (Opensea) (the second defendant).

The petitioner made an application without notice for: (I) a break restrictive directive limiting the scattering of the NFTs being referred to; and (ii) a revelation request known as a Bankers Trust Order, requiring Opensea to give data to empower the petitioner to follow or recognize the people who controlled the wallets to which the NFTs had been transferred.

The Decision

Recognising that the NFTs could be disseminated rapidly, the adjudicator conceded every one of the orders looked for by the petitioner and allowed the petitioner to serve the two litigants out of the ward by elective means. In arriving at this choice, the Court made the accompanying key findings:

Very much like digital currencies, there is a questionable case that NFTs are ‘property’ under English regulation (which is a pre-essential to conceding exclusive help over a resource).
The NFTs were held by the people obscure on a ‘constructive trust’ for the inquirer. In outline, when property is gotten by misrepresentation, a productive trust is forced on the false beneficiary so they hold lawful title to the resources on trust for the person in question. This finding is in accordance with a previous view communicated by the English court that advanced resources were fit for being hung on trust.2
As in past digital currency extortion cases, (for example, Ion Science Ltd v Persons Unknown, on which we detailed in March 2021 (open here)), NFTs are to be treated as being situated where their proprietor is domiciled to decide the material law of a debate.
Harms wouldn’t be a sufficient solution for repay the petitioner for the misfortune as: (I) the monetary capacity of the people obscure to meet an honor of harms could clearly not be surveyed; and (ii) NFTs have a “particular, personal and unique value to the claimant which extends beyond their Fiat currency [i.e. conventional cash] value”. This subsequent reasoning recognizes NFTs from cryptographic forms of money which are fungible, and improves the probability of an English court conceding injunctive alleviation in regard of taken NFTs in ongoing cases.
The petitioner was conceded authorization to serve the Bankers Trust Order on Opensea in the U.S., which is steady with the methodology taken in Ion Science to serving revelation orders on cryptographic money trades found abroad. For this situation, the court was ready to make the request in conditions where Opensea had no presence in the English locale and the capacity to urge consistence with any request against it would be sketchy. It isn’t certain if the result may be unique in the event that a point was taken at a full hearing with regards to the failure or difficulty of any English request being implemented in the significant unfamiliar locale.


Whilst this is a break judgment and the litigants were not addressed at the meeting to contend for their situation, it is a significant stage towards NFTs being perceived as property and will give solace to casualties of NFT misrepresentation that compelling exclusive cures are accessible through the English courts to help with recuperating their NFTs. The accessibility of strong cures, for example, exposure orders against crypto trades based external the UK can be utilized to break through the namelessness stood to holders of crypto wallets thus work with authorization against those in receipt of the taken resources – similarly as occurred on account of Ion Science where a trade was constrained to reveal the record holder of taken Bitcoin, this eventually bringing about requirement against reserves held in that record. This is especially huge as the (generally big) number of tricks and cheats in crypto markets keeps on developing. Albeit by far most of crypto cases under the steady gaze of the English courts have up to this point concerned misused digital currencies, we expect an expansion in cases concerning taken NFTs as the market for NFTs proceeds to mature.

The English courts keep on driving the way in safeguarding cryptoasset financial backers by showing their eagerness to apply existing legitimate standards to the advancing crypto markets and to act quickly to give solutions for survivors of crypto extortion. The English courts are alive to the business truth of crypto cheats, for this situation the adjudicator taking note of that “if the [injunction] is not granted then there is a very real risk that these assets will be transferred through multiple different accounts at great speed, and in a way which will make it practically either very difficult, or possibly even impossible, for the claimant to trace and retrieve her assets”.

The creators are thankful to Jennifer Hutchings, Trainee Solicitor in London, for her significant commitment to this OnPoint.


Lavinia Deborah Osbourne v (1) Persons Unknown and (2) Ozone Networks Inc exchanging as Opensea [2022] EWHC 1021 (Comm)
Wang v Darby [2021] EWHC 3054 (Comm)

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