“Everything old is new again” is an apt truism in relation to the world of employment regulation as of late. Employment insurance policies, resembling anti-discrimination/harassment and codes of worker conduct, are receiving new consideration as workers proceed working remotely by way of shared on-line workspaces and numerous digital communication platforms.

COVID-19 triggered a pivot to mass distant work that resulted in digital work and communication platforms changing into a principal, and seemingly everlasting, element of the office. Nevertheless, the pandemic didn’t change the long-standing authorized framework for employers to keep away from legal responsibility for worker misconduct. As a substitute, the magnitude and length of the shift from a conventional in-person office to on-line work environments created an off-the-cuff environment the place workers might method work with an off-the-cuff perspective and interact in conduct as if office conduct insurance policies don’t apply. Employers embracing distant work, both completely or on a hybrid foundation, ought to overview and replace their employment insurance policies and trainings to make sure workers perceive what digital types of harassment and different inappropriate conduct appear like—and the way they should adapt their conduct and look to digital workspaces.

Digital Harassment and Misconduct

Employers have a obligation underneath federal, state and native regulation to supply a piece atmosphere that is freed from harassment and discrimination in reference to a broad vary of protected lessons, together with race, colour, faith, intercourse, nationwide origin, age and incapacity. This accountability is just not tied to a bodily location; it extends to digital work environments and has completed so for many years.

In truth, the New Jersey Supreme Court docket acknowledged the existence of “virtual offices” and distant work almost 22 years in the past in Blakely v. Continental Airways, 164 N.J. 38, 60-61 (2000) when it thought of whether or not an employer might be held accountable for sexual harassment that occurred on an digital bulletin board utilized by workers. In deciding that employers might be held accountable for such conduct, the courtroom cautioned employers that their employment insurance policies ought to cowl conduct within the ever-changing, internet-connected work atmosphere. The courtroom additionally strengthened the requirement that, to keep away from legal responsibility, employers want to deal with inappropriate on-line conduct when they’re made conscious of it.

Heeding the warning of the Blakely courtroom, employers have prioritized compliance by way of the event and implementation of anti-discrimination/harassment insurance policies and mechanisms to analyze and tackle office complaints. As new applied sciences and modes of on-line work modified over time, employers revised their insurance policies and trainings and developed new ones to deal with worker actions on-line, together with insurance policies pertaining to laptop use, electronic mail and prompt messaging. Because of this, workers have been on discover for fairly a while of their obligation to conduct themselves in an expert method and adjust to firm insurance policies whatever the setting of their office.

Nonetheless, the introduction of videoconferencing with little or no in-person interactions amongst colleagues for what has was an open-ended interval of distant work has created an off-the-cuff work environment and prompted workers to behave as if the standard office insurance policies and expectations of conduct don’t apply of their on-line environments. This informal environment heightens the danger of inappropriate conduct. To keep away from potential legal responsibility, employers ought to remind workers of their obligation to conduct themselves in an expert method all through the workday—no matter whether or not their work is carried out in a bodily or digital atmosphere—and refresh their information of related office insurance policies (anti discrimination/harassment, gown codes, expertise use insurance policies, alcohol and drug use and others) by way of acceptable coaching.

Consider and Enhance Insurance policies

Earlier than doing so, employers ought to overview and replace their insurance policies and trainings to make sure that they explicitly cowl present digital communication platforms, together with audio and videoconferencing, staff chats and textual content messages. The coverage updates and coaching supplies additionally ought to present up to date hypothetical examples of prohibited on-line conduct, together with examples of sexual harassment and discrimination, to establish digital types of inappropriate conduct not beforehand contemplated or simply recognized. Most office harassment and discrimination claims come up from in-person office interactions, resembling undesirable bodily contact or in-person gestures resembling “elevator eyes” and lingering round a co-worker on the workplace. Harassment and discrimination might look completely different or seem much less apparent in a digital atmosphere.

For instance, a supervisor might request too-frequent or pointless one-on-one conferences with a subordinate on digital camera solely as a result of the supervisor desires to see the worker. Taking photos or screenshots of work-mates showing in videoconferencing, making feedback about an worker’s bodily look or background throughout a videoconference, and excluding an worker from staff chats and conferences are different examples of conduct that might result in claims of harassment or discrimination. Examples of this kind of conduct must be included within the coverage and coaching updates to assist workers establish and keep away from inappropriate on-line conduct.

Employers additionally ought to overview and modify, if needed, present insurance policies to deal with acceptable look and enterprise communications etiquette. An replace to a gown code coverage or the event of recent digital look coverage ought to explicitly cowl expectations for digital appearances, together with whether or not workers should seem on digital camera and, if that’s the case, set requirements for background screens in addition to correct apparel. Work-from-home apparel thought of acceptable throughout the pandemic is probably not acceptable for the long run, and there are some workers who take enterprise informal apparel to an unprofessional degree.

Equally, updates to a enterprise communications coverage ought to set requirements for workers to observe of their on-line communications and remind workers to be clear {and professional} of their communications. Staff are primarily speaking on-line from their private residing areas—or their favourite espresso store—through prompt messaging, group chats, texts and emails. They might take a extra informal perspective towards these digital communications and embrace acronyms, emoji, memes and GIFs that simply will be misinterpreted or perceived as offensive.

Employers must also guarantee drug-free office insurance policies tackle digital work environments. Grownup leisure use of marijuana is now authorized in 19 states and the District of Columbia. Nevertheless, none of these legal guidelines obligate employers to just accept marijuana use or impairment throughout work, and they’re free to ban it even in digital work environments.

Talk Coverage Updates

As soon as up to date, the insurance policies must be communicated clearly to workers both by direct distribution of the updates or through intranet hyperlink entry with an acknowledgment assertion to doc workers’ receipt and understanding of the updates. Employers additionally ought to prepare workers on the updates and remind them learn how to report incidents of harassment, discrimination and retaliation. All studies must be taken significantly and addressed. Within the occasion it’s essential to self-discipline an worker, the explanations must be documented and the self-discipline must be proportionate and in step with disciplinary motion imposed on different workers who engaged in related conduct, whether or not in a conventional or digital office setting. On this regard, consideration must be given to together with revocation of distant work privileges as a type of self-discipline that could be imposed for coverage violations, if sensible.


Neither distant work nor worker use of employer-sponsored digital platforms is new. What’s new is the dimensions of this exercise and its creation of a extra informal, much less typical, office setting. This shift to a digital work atmosphere has made it straightforward for workers to overlook that office conduct insurance policies apply of their on-line distant work atmosphere. Taking the chance to overview related employment insurance policies with workers and remind them how they’re to speak and behave when they’re working in particular person or nearly can go a good distance towards limiting dangers of inappropriate conduct.

Laura A. Stutz is of counsel in Wilson Elser’s New Jersey workplace and a member of the agency’s employment and labor follow. She is reachable at

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